# How to Solve Control Engineering Problems with MATLAB by Katsuhiko Ogata

## How to Solve Control Engineering Problems with MATLAB by Katsuhiko Ogata

Control engineering is an engineering discipline that deals with control systems, applying control theory to design equipment and systems with desired behaviors in control environments[^3^]. MATLAB is a powerful software tool that can be used for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. One of the advantages of MATLAB is that it has a rich collection of functions and toolboxes for control engineering applications.

In this article, we will introduce a book that can help you learn how to solve control engineering problems with MATLAB. The book is called Solving Control Engineering Problems with MATLAB by Katsuhiko Ogata, a professor emeritus of mechanical engineering at the University of Minnesota. The book covers topics such as linear system analysis, frequency response analysis, state-space analysis, stability analysis, root locus method, Nyquist criterion, Bode plots, PID control, lead-lag compensation, and more. The book also provides many examples and exercises that illustrate how to use MATLAB commands and functions for control engineering problems.

## solving control engineering problems with matlab ogata pdf.rar

The book is available in PDF format from various online sources. However, some of these sources may not be reliable or legal. Therefore, we recommend that you purchase the book from a reputable publisher or vendor. Alternatively, you can access the book online from the Internet Archive[^1^] or Google Books[^2^], where you can read, download, or borrow the book for free. However, you may need to create an account or sign in to access these services.

If you are interested in learning how to solve control engineering problems with MATLAB, this book can be a valuable resource for you. It can help you understand the theory and practice of control engineering using MATLAB as a tool. You can also use the book as a reference or a supplement for your courses or projects in control engineering.In the following sections, we will show you some examples of how to use MATLAB for solving control engineering problems. These examples are based on the Control Tutorials for MATLAB and Simulink (CTMS) website[^2^], which is a great resource for learning more about control engineering with MATLAB and Simulink. You can also find other examples and exercises in the book by Ogata[^1^].

## Example 1: Cruise Control

Cruise control is a system that automatically adjusts the speed of a vehicle to maintain a constant desired speed. The cruise control system consists of a plant (the vehicle dynamics), a sensor (the speedometer), and a controller (the throttle actuator). The controller compares the actual speed of the vehicle with the desired speed and adjusts the throttle accordingly.

To model and simulate the cruise control system in MATLAB, we need to first obtain the transfer function of the plant. The transfer function relates the output speed of the vehicle to the input throttle angle. We can derive the transfer function by applying Newton's second law of motion and Laplace transform to the vehicle dynamics. The resulting transfer function is:

$$G(s) = \fracV(s)U(s) = \fracbms + b$$

where V(s) is the Laplace transform of the output speed v(t), U(s) is the Laplace transform of the input throttle angle u(t), m is the mass of the vehicle, and b is the damping coefficient due to friction and drag.

To create the transfer function in MATLAB, we can use the tf function:

```matlab

m = 1000; % mass of vehicle in kg

b = 50; % damping coefficient in Ns/m

G = tf(b,[m b]); % create transfer function

```

To plot the step response of the plant, we can use the step function:

```matlab

step(G); % plot step response

```

The step response shows how the speed of the vehicle changes when a constant throttle angle is applied. We can see that the speed reaches a steady-state value that depends on the throttle angle. However, this steady-state value may not be equal to the desired speed. For example, if we want to maintain a speed of 20 m/s, we need to apply a throttle angle of 0.4 rad. To see this, we can use the dcgain function to compute the steady-state gain of the plant:

```matlab

K = dcgain(G); % compute steady-state gain

u = 20/K; % compute required throttle angle for 20 m/s

```

To design a controller that can automatically adjust the throttle angle to achieve any desired speed, we can use a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. A PID controller is a common type of feedback controller that uses three terms: proportional, integral, and derivative. The proportional term depends on the current error between the desired and actual speed, the integral term depends on the accumulated error over time, and the derivative term depends on the rate of change of error. The output of the PID controller is given by:

$$C(s) = K_p + \fracK_is + K_ds$$

where Kp, Ki, and Kd are the proportional, integral, and derivative gains, respectively.

To create a PID controller in MATLAB, we can use the pid function:

```matlab

Kp = 800; % proportional gain

Ki = 40; % integral gain

Kd = 100; % derivative gain

C = pid(Kp,Ki,Kd); % create PID controller

```

To connect the PID controller with the plant and form a closed-loop system, we can use the feedback function:

```matlab

H = feedback(C*G,1); % create closed-loop system

```

To compare the performance of the closed-loop system with the open-loop plant, we can plot their step responses together:

```matlab

step(G,H); % plot step responses

legend('Open-loop','Closed-loop');

```

The step response of the closed-loop system shows that it can track any desired speed with zero steady-state error and minimal overshoot and settling time. This means that it can maintain a constant speed regardless of external disturbances such as hills or wind. 0efd9a6b88

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